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Below is a small example of the quality sources that we have engaged with in order to compile our care guides, YouTube videos, and content in general. These sources include yet are not limited to:
Books, peer reviewed papers, professional publications, hobbyist publications, professional AZA training, conversations with professional herpetologists/zoologists, professional breeders, and both private and zoo veterinarians.
Please consider these sources and others you find as you form your own analytical conclusions. 

This is NOT a complete list, only a small sample.
ACIERNO, M., et al. (2006). Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 Synthesis in Red-eared Slider Turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 67, 2046–2049.
ACIERNO, M., et al. (2008). Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Plasma 25- hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations in Corn Snakes (Elaphe guttata). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 69(2), 294-297
ADKINS, E., et al. (2003) Ultraviolet Light and Reptiles, Amphibians. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 13(4): 27 - 37. (available online: accessed 11th Dec 2018)
ALTHERR, S (2014): Stolen Wildlife – Why the EU needs to tackle smuggling of nationally protected species. Report by Pro Wildlife, Munich, Germany, 32 pp
BAINES, F.M. (2018). Owner of UV Guide UK Website. Online Conversations.
BAINES, F. M. (2017) UV or not UV? An In-Depth Look At UV Light And Its Proper Use With Reptiles. In: Reptiles magazine, Jan-Feb 2017 16- 25. Available online at
BAINES, F. et al. (2016). How much UV-B does my reptile need? The UV-Tool, a guide to the selection of UV lighting for reptiles and amphibians in captivity. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 4(1): 42 - 63. 
BAINES, F.M. (2009). Catching Wavelengths: How natural and artificial lighting affects reptiles. Reptiles 17 (May 2009): 26-35 Available online at:
BALL, J. (Owner of Blue Tongue Lizards Australia). 2017-2019. Personal conversations.
BIRCH, P. (Owner of Peter Birch's Colorful Critters and CrittaCam). 2019-2020. Personal conversations.
BAUER, A. (1999). Notes on John White's Journal of a Voyage to new South Wales (1790), a Classic of Australian Herpetology. Newsletter Internatl. Soc. Hist. Bibliogr. Herpetol. 1(1): 16-19
BELL, J.A. (2005). Tiliqua scincoides intermedia. Reptilia (GB) (41): 27-31
BENTLEY P.J., BLUMER, F.C. (1962). "Uptake of water by the lizard, Moloch horridus ". Nature. 194 (4829): 699–700
BREEDEN, S. (1988). The first Australians. National Geographic 173(2): 266-289​
BROWN, DANNY (2012). A Guide to Australian Monitors in Captivity. ABK Publications. pp. 171–172. 
BROWN, DANNY (2012). A Guide to Australian Skinks in Captivity. ABK Publications. 
BROWNE-COOPER, R.; BUSH, B.; MARYAN, B.; ROBINSON, D. (2007). Reptiles and Frogs in the Bush: Southwestern Australia. University of Western Australia Press. pp. 46, 65, 158.
CAPUTO, V., G. Odierna, G. Aprea & T. Capriglione (1993): Eumeces algeriensis, a full species of the E. schneiderii group (Scincidae): karyological and morphological evidence -- Amphibia-Reptilia 14: 187-193-- 
CHRISTIAN, K.A., Webb, J.K. & Schultz, T.J. (2003)Energetics of bluetongue lizards (Tiliqua scincoides) in a seasonal tropical environment. Oecologia 136, 515–523. 
COGGER, H. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. 6th ed. Chelsea Green Publishing, Australia.
COOPER, W. (2000). Food Chemical Discriminations by the Omnivorous Scincid Lizards Tiliqua scincoides and Tiliqua rugosa. Herpetologica, 56(4), 480-488. Retrieved April 23, 2020, from

COPE, E.D. (1861) Contributions to the ophiology of Lower California, Mexico and Central America. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 292-306 
COUPER, P., COVACEVICH, J., AMEY, A. & BAKER, A. (2006). The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
COURTNEY-SMITH, J. et al. (2016). The Arcadia Guide to Reptile and Amphibian Nutrition. Arcadia Products - 1784
———. (2016) The Arcadia Guide to Bio-Activity and the Theory of Wild Re-Creation. Arcadia Products -1784
COURTNEY-SMITH, J. (Reptile Products Manager at Arcadia Reptile). 2018-2020. Personal communication.
COURTNEY-SMITH, J. et al. (2018). The 'Elements Series, Part 1; Fire: The Sun, Its Use and Replication within Reptile Keeping. Arcadia Reptile c/o Monkfield Nutrition.
DIEHL, JJE. et al. (2017). A comparison of UVb compact lamps in enabling cutaneous vitamin D synthesis in growing bearded dragons. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 102:308–316. 
DIERENFELD, E and J. KING (2008). Digestibility and Mineral Availability of Phoenix Worms, Hermetia illucens, Ingested by Mountain Chicken Frogs, Leptodactylus fallax. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery: 2008, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 100-105.
EHMANN, HARALD (1992). Encyclopedia of Australian Animals: Reptiles. Angus and Robertson.
ELLIS D, et al. Circadian Rhythm of Behaviroal Thermoregulation in the Sleeply Lizard (Tiliqua rugosa). Herpetologica 1 September 2006; 62 (3): 259–265.
FREED, P. (Supervisor of Reptiles - Houston Zoo). 2003. Professional training and personal conversations. 
FOX, S. (Curator of Herpetology - Oklahoma State University). 2002-2005. Personal conversations
FERGUSON, G., Brinker, A., Gehrmann, W., Bucklin, S., Baines, F. and Mackin, S. 2010. Voluntary Exposure of Some Western-Hemisphere Snake and Lizard Species to Ultraviolet-B (UVB) Radiation in the field: How Much UVB Should a Lizard or Snake Receive in Captivity? Zoo Biology 29 (3) 317-334
FERGUSON G.W., et al. (2002) Effects of Artificial Ultraviolet Light Exposure on Reproductive Success of the Female Panther Chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) in Captivity. Zoo Biology 21:525-537.
FERGUSON G.W., et. al. (2005). Ultraviolet Exposure and Vitamin D Synthesis in a Sun-Dwelling and a Shade-Dwelling Species of Anolis: Are There Adaptations for Lower Ultraviolet B and Dietary Vitamin D3 Availability in the Shade? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78(2):193-200.
GOIN, C.J., GOIN O.B., ZUG, G.R. (1978) Introduction to Herpetology, Third Edition. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. xi + 378 pp. (Lichanura roseofusca, pp. 50, 318-319).
GURGUI, R. (Owner of Thunder Bay Herps). 2016. Personal conversations. 
HANLEY, K. & HANLEY, S. (2003). Tiliqua scincoides, Common Blue-Tongued Skink. Reptilia (GB) (29): 39-42
HARRISON, L., L. MCGUIRE, S. WARD, A. FISHER, C. PAVEY, M. FEGAN, AND B. LYNCH. (2009). An Inventory of Sites of International and National Significance for Biodiversity Values in the Northern Territory. Department of Natural Resources, Environment, the Arts and Sport, Darwin, Australia
HEALEY, M. ReptiFiles. Web Application. (Accessed 21 APR 2020): 
H.E.R.P. Herpetological Education and Research Project. (2017). Moroccan Expedition. [Web App]
HOUSTON, T. (2006). The Midget Faded Rattlesnake, Crotalus concolor. Reptilia (GB). (45): 33-37.
HOUSTON, T. (2008). Ophioghagy in A Captive Sonoran Desert Sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes cercobombus). Southwestern Ctr Herptol. Research [Web App]
HOUSTON, T. (2019). Hard Labour: A Brief Note on a Prolonged Parturition Event in a Captive Northern Blue-Tongue Skink (Tiliqua scincoides intermedia). iHerp Australia, Vol 13 (Jul/Aug): pp. 24-27. Available online at
HUNT, D. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Law Enforcement Officer). 2018. Personal conversation.
KEHOE, S., et al. (2016). Partial Glossectomy in a Blue-Tongued Skink (Tiliqua scincoides) with Lingual Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery: March-June 2016, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, pp. 36-41.
KOENIG, J., SHINE, R., and G. SHEA. (2001). The ecology of an Australian reptile icon: how do blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua scincoides) survive in suburbia?. Wildlife Research 28, 214-227.
MAYS, S. (Curator of Reptiles - Houston Zoo). 2003. Professional training and personal conversations
MAYHEW, Wilber W. (1965). Hibernation in the Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma m'calli. Comparative Biochemical Physiology. Vol 16, pp. 103-119. doi: 10.1016/0010-406X(65)90167-2
MITCHELL, F. J. (1950). The scincid genera Egernia and Tiliqua (Lacertilia). Rec. South Austral. Mus. 9: 275-308
MOHR, J. (Assoc. Professor of Biology - Southern Wesleyan University). 2002-2006. Personal conversations.
MOLYNEUX, A. (Owner of 2016-2018. Personal communications.
MURPHY, MICHAEL J. (2016). Survey of the reptiles and amphibians of Yarrigan National Park in the Pilliga forest of northern inland New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 38 (2): 147
MURYN, ROMAN (2019). Next Level Heating: Why Infrared Wavelengths Matter. Peregrine Reptile News. October Issue: pp 12-21. (Download)
MURYN, ROMAN (2020). What Does the Sun Deliver and How Do Lamps Match Up? Posted from The Business of Light and Heat  Ver. 03 on Reptile Lighting Facebook Group.  
NIX, H.; SWITZER, M.A. (1991). Rainforest Animals: Atlas of the Vertebrates Endemic to Australia's Wet Tropics. Canberra: Kowari
OFFICIALS. Australian Wildlife Trade Compliance Office. 2018. Email communication.
OFFICIALS. New Zealand’s Ministry of Public Industries. 2018. Telephonic interview.
OONINCX, D. & VAN LEEUWEN, J. 2017. Evidence-Based Reptile Housing and Nutrition. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice. 20. . 10.1016/j.cvex.2017.04.004. 
PARKE, ERIN. (2018). Lucrative, easy and on the rise: Animal smuggler warns of growing black market in native animals. ABC News (AUS).
PERERA, ANA et al. (2012). Genetic variability and relationships within the skinks Eumeces algeriensis and Eumeces schneideri using mitochondrial markers. African journal of herpetology: journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa. 61. 69-80. 10.1080/21564574.2011.583284. 
PHILLIPS, J. (1986). Ontogeny of Metabolic Processes in Blue-Tongued Skinks, Tiliqua scincoides. Herpetologica, 42(4), 405-412. Retrieved April 23, 2020, from
PRICE-REES, S., P. BROWN, AND R. SHINE. (2014). Activity Patterns & Mvmnts of Free-Ranging Blue Tongue Lizards (Tiliqua scincoides intermedia and Tiliqua multifasciata) in the Australian Wet-Dry Tropics. J. of Herpetol. 48(3):298-305.
RAITI, P. (2012). Husbandry, Diseases, and Veterinary Care of the Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery: September-December 2012, Vol. 22, No. 3-4, pp. 117-131.
READ, C. (2014).  Reptiles as Pets. Web Application (Accessed 11/11/2020):
REISINGER, M. (2014). Farbzucht beim Nördlichen Blauzungenskink, Tiliqua scincoides intermedia. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (109): 54-62
REPASHY, A. (2015). Nutrition for Your Reptiles. Reptile Magazine. [Web App]
SCHWANDT, HANS-JOACHIM. (2019). The Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum, Natural History, Husbandry & Propagation. (Chimaira) Andreas S. Brahm: Frankfurt. 
SHEA, G.  (1993). The anatomist John Hunter (1728-1793), the Eastern Bluetongue Skink Tiliqua scincoides (Squamata: Scincidae) and the discovery of herbivory in skinks. Archives of Natural History 20 (3): 303
SHEA, G. (1998). Australian Blue Tongues. Nature Australia Summer 1998- 99:31–39.
SHEA, G. (2006). Diet of two species of bluetongue skink, Tiliqua multifasciata and Tiliqua occipitalis (Squamata: Scincidae). Australian Zoologist 33:359–368.
SHINE, RICHARD; ROBERT LAMBECK (1989). "Ecology of Frillneck Lizards in Tropical Australia". Australian Wildlife. 16: 491–500. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
SHINE, RICHARD (1990). "Function and evolution of the frill of the frillneck lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii (Sauria: Agamidae)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 40 (1): 11–20. 
STEBBINS, R.C. (1985) A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. 
Houghton Mifflin, Boston
STORR, G. M.; L. A. SMITH, and R. E. JOHNSTONE 1999. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Revised Edition. Western Australian Museum
TORR, GEORDIE (1997). "Forest dragons". Nature Australia. 25: 32–39.
TOSINI, G., FERGUSON, I., and TSUBOTA, K, (2016). Effects of Blue Light on the Circadian System and Eye Physiology. Molecular Vision: Biology and Genetics in Vision Research (2018). Skinks [Web App]
TURNER, G. (1996). Some litters of the eastern blue-tongued skink Tiliqua scincoides scincoides (Scincidae). Herpetofauna (Sydney) 26 (2): 39-47
VAN DENBURGH, John (1922) The Reptiles of Western North America. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco
VIPERS GARDEN. (2010). Moroccan Trip Report.  [Web App]
WEBB, M. (Premier Blue Tongue Breeder in the UK). 2018-2019. Personal communication.
WEINSTEIN, SCOTT A.; SMITH, TAMARA L.; KARDONG, KENNETH V. (14 July 2009). "Reptile Venom Glands Form, Function, and Future". In Stephen P. Mackessy (ed.). Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles. Taylor & Francis. pp. 76–84. ISBN 978-1-4200-0866-1. Retrieved 18 July 2013
WHITE, JOHN (1790). Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, with sixty five plates of non-descript animals, birds, lizards, serpents, curious cones of trees and other natural productions. London: Debrett. p. 253.
WILSON, S.; SWAN, G. (2013). A Complete Guide to Reptiles of Australia, Fourth Edition. Sydney: New Holland Publishers.
WUNDERLICH, SARINA. (2020). Radiant Heater. Article posted in Reptile Lighting Facebook Group (Original Untranslated Version -->
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